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Accomplishment Series - 1998

Tech Act Projects Creating Systems Change Through Policies, Practices, Laws, Regulations, Procedures, and Organizational Structures

National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research
Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services
U.S. Department of Education
600 Independence Avenue, SW
Washington, DC 20202
http://www.ed.gov/offices/OSERS/NIDRR

Introduction
The Technology-Related Assistance for Individuals with Disabilities Act of 1988, as amended (Tech Act), provides discretionary grants to states to assist them in developing and implementing consumer-responsive, comprehensive statewide programs of technology-related assistance for individuals of all ages who have disabilities. Currently, all 50 states, plus the District of Columbia, Puerto Rico, American Samoa, Guam, the Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands, and the U.S. Virgin Islands, have an assistive technology project (Tech Act project) funded under this act. The National Institute on Disability and Rehabilitation Research (NIDRR), Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services of the U. S. Department of Education, administers the Tech Act program. The Tech Act requires projects to examine barriers to accessing and obtaining assistive technology in their states and then work to permanently eliminate those barriers. In addition, each State and Territory project has established a collaborative relationship through a grant or contract with a Protection and Advocacy agency (P&A) to provide individual and systems legal representation and advocacy.

Over the 8 years that the Tech Act program has been in operation, projects have focused on changing legislation, policies, practices, and organizational structures to overcome barriers in three areas:

* Access to Assistive Technology.
* Availability of Assistive Technology.
* Funding for Assistive Technology.

Assistive technology device means any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off the shelf, modified, or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. Assistive technology service means any service that directly assists an individual with a disability in the selection, acquisition, or use of an assistive technology device.

Projects are to engage in systems change and advocacy activities. Systems change in the Tech Act legislation is defined as efforts that result in laws, regulations, policies, practices, or organizational structures that promote consumer-responsive programs or entities and that facilitate and increase access to, provision of, and funding for, assistive technology devices and assistive technology services on a permanent basis, in order to empower individuals with disabilities to achieve greater independence, productivity, and integration and inclusion within the community and the work force.

Activities Serving as a Catalyst for Change

Individual state Tech Act projects focus their activities on needs and barriers identified by the citizens with disabilities in their respective states. The activities described here are just a few of the many activities in which the Tech Act projects are engaged. While only one or two states may be used as an example, many other states may also be conducting similar activities. Contact the RESNA Technical Assistance Project or the individual state project directly for more information. A list of funded projects is included at the end of this document.

Changes Through Policy and Legislation

Tech Act projects have been able to influence policies and legislation that have expanded access to assistive technology devices and services, increased funding sources, created new programs, and increased the timeliness of the provision of services and devices.

* State Purchasing Policies

State Tech Act projects worked to streamline state purchasing policies so that their citizens with disabilities acquire and receive assistive technology devices and services in a more timely manner.

The Louisiana Tech Act Project (LATAN) was successful in getting assistive technology devices exempted from lengthy state purchasing procedures, so that individuals receiving rehabilitation services are now able to get devices more quickly.
The Connecticut Tech Act Project has worked with its Bureau of Rehabilitation Services to simplify the purchasing system for assistive technology devices. There are now fewer steps for consumers and less time between a request for and acquisition of a device.

* Model Policy

Fifteen state Tech Act projects jointly developed a model policy for the funding of alternative and augmentative communication (AAC) devices under Medicaid. AAC devices allow people who cannot speak to communicate with the aid of technology. Based on this policy, the states have adopted or expanded their Medicaid coverage to include approval of funding of AAC devices and services. As a result, more people are able to obtain the devices. A similar "model policy" is being developed for Medicare.

The Illinois Tech Act Project influenced its state Department of Public Aid to include augmentative communication devices as a covered service for children and adults. To date, approximately 150 augmentative communication devices and components have been approved by the Department of Public Aid.

Through efforts of the Indiana Tech Act Project (ATTAIN), computers for schools and communications devices were obtained from medical assistance through successful mediation and negotiation.

* Ensuring Access Through Assistive Technology

Tech Act projects have worked toward a goal of using assistive technology as a tool for ensuring accessibility for people with a disability. For example, courts now make assistive listening devices available to persons who are hard of hearing. Election commissions are now using assistive technology to make voting booths more accessible for persons who are blind or physically disabled.

The Arkansas Tech Act Project (ICAN) helped pass legislation which required courts within the state to provide auxiliary aids for jurors with hearing impairments. The previous practice was to exclude persons with hearing impairments from participation.

* Medicaid Policies

State Tech Act projects have worked with their designated state agencies, including protection and advocacy (P&A) agencies, to change Medicaid policies so that adults and children can obtain the technology and services they need to live more independently.

The Texas Tech Act Project, in concert with others, obtained changes in the state's Medicaid waiver for medically dependent children so that Medicaid now includes assistive technology as a covered service. The project also succeeded in obtaining improvements in the Medicaid home health benefits. The benefits now cover customized power wheelchairs.
In Wisconsin, the Tech Act Project (WisTech) and other groups were able to influence a change in the state's Medicaid policy that previously had denied power wheelchairs to residents in skilled nursing facilities. Now state citizens are able to increase their independence, potentially enabling them to move from the facility into their own homes. Over 7,700 citizens are affected by the policy change.

In Rhode Island, the Tech Act Project was successful in influencing a Medicaid procedure that required a lengthy preauthorization period for obtaining an assistive technology device. Now there is a 15-day response period, which allows persons with disabilities to receive needed assistive technology in a timely manner.

In Florida, the Tech Act Project (FAAST), along with the P&A agency, influenced the state's Medicaid reimbursement policies. Now Medicaid will reimburse schools for occupational therapy, physical therapy, and speech-language pathology services provided to K-12 students who are eligible for Medicaid. Prior to this, schools absorbed these costs. The new policy will affect the 320,000 children using assistive technology in the state.

In Arkansas, the Tech Act project (ICAN) was successful in influencing the adoption of new Medicaid durable medical equipment reimbursement rules. Prior to this change, adult Medicaid recipients were not able to receive durable medical equipment. Under the new rules they will be able to receive such devices as wheelchairs.

* Medicare Policies


State Tech Act projects and their P&A agencies have worked with their state Medicare agencies to clarify assistive technology coverage and to broaden benefits for their citizens with disabilities.

Several state Tech Act projects are collaborating to expand Medicare coverage to include augmentative and alternative communication devices. This will allow more people with disabilities who need these devices to communicate to obtain them through Medicare funding.

The Delaware Tech Act Project (DATI) has trained case managers from its state Division of Services for Aging and Adults with Physical Disabilities to make them aware of Medicare's assistive technology policies (among other assistive technology funding streams) to increase the number of Medicare clients who can obtain assistive technology.

The Missouri Tech Act Project (MATP) aided the Missouri Department of Insurance in promulgating new regulations that expand mandatory access to Medigap insurance. This new rule will allow as many as 86,000 persons with disabilities under age 65 who have Medicare to purchase expanded insurance coverage with a full range of Medigap policies at equitable prices.

* Private Insurance Policies


State Tech Act projects have begun to improve access to assistive technology devices and services available through private insurance.

The Indiana Tech Act Project (ATTAIN) is working to standardize definitions for durable medical equipment and medical necessity in the state's administrative code for indemnity and managed care policies. This will provide both consistency across insurance policies and an easier way to appeal denials.

The Washington Tech Act Project, through its state's protection and advocacy, was successful in getting an augmentative communication device paid for through private insurance after the insurance company had previously denied coverage.

Private insurance groups and large companies that self-insure contract with the Oregon Tech Act Project (TALN) to provide assistive technology rehabilitation services for injured workers under Workman's Compensation.

* Low Interest Loan Programs


State projects have established revolving loan programs. These low-interest loans help people with disabilities acquire assistive technology to improve their quality of life and to be more self-sufficient. In 1996, consumers borrowed almost $2 million through these low-interest loan programs to purchase assistive technology.

The Vermont Tech Act Project facilitated the passage of legislation that created the Adaptive Equipment Revolving Fund to provide loans to low-income citizens for the purchase of assistive technology.

The Virginia Tech Act Project (VATS) helped state legislators pass the Virginia Assistive Technology Loan Authority in 1995. A $500,000 budget amendment was approved in July 1996 to fund this private/public partnership that provides long-term, low-interest loans to middle- and low-income Virginians with disabilities.

* Statewide Telecommunication Equipment Distribution Programs

State Tech Act projects have encouraged the development of statewide programs that deliver adaptive equipment to persons with disabilities, including those who are deaf, deaf-blind, hard of hearing, or significantly speech impaired. Devices that are distributed include text telephones, amplifiers, telebraillers, and hands-free phones. Many individuals with disabilities are unable to use traditional telephone equipment and services. These adaptive devices enable individuals to independently access basic telephone service.

The Pennsylvania Tech Act Project (PIAT) aided in the passage of the state Telecommunications Device Distribution Act to increase access to telecommunications for low-income individuals with disabilities. Over 200 applications have been received since the program started accepting applications in February 1997.

The New York State Tech Act Project (TRAID) partnered with NYNEX to implement a $2 million telecommunications equipment distribution program. In the first year of operation, over 860 low-income customers with disabilities received TDDs (telecommunication devices for the deaf), amplified telephones, telebraillers, and other equipment.

* Lemon Laws for Wheelchairs and Other Assistive Technology

Thirty-five State Tech Act projects have fostered the passage of lemon laws to date. Three other states have lemon laws pending. Like automotive lemon laws, these laws protect consumers against defective assistive technology devices. Thus, a person who purchases a motorized wheelchair that does not work properly after repeated repairs can seek recourse from the manufacturer for replacement.

In Rhode Island, the Tech Act project and the P&A agency helped pass its state's Lemon Law in 1995. Since then individuals have been able to use the stronger protections in the law to obtain favorable results.

* State Compliance with Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA)


State Tech Act projects have worked with their states to ensure compliance with federal regulations related to the Americans with Disabilities Act and other laws.

The Arizona Tech Act Project (AzTAP) and the P&A agency
were instrumental in getting telecommunication devices for the deaf (TDD) equipment installed at major highway rest stops in the state, so that individuals who are deaf can call for emergency services and make other telephone calls while traveling.

* Compliance with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act and Other Civil Rights Acts

As one of the conditions for receiving funding under the Tech Act, states must comply with Section 508 of the Rehabilitation Act, which was established to ensure the accessibility of electronic and information technologies by all state agency employees. State Tech Act projects have worked to ensure compliance with this statute within their state agencies by providing technical assistance and training to appropriate agencies.

The Massachusetts State Tech Act Project (MATP) and its partners were successful in using Section 508 to leverage the state's information technology purchasing power to prompt Microsoft's promotion of accessibility features that ensure better compatibility between screen readers and applications running on Windows 95. These features benefit all state agency employees as well as people with disabilities around the country.

The Minnesota Tech Act Project (STAR) supported state legislation that ensures the interoperability and access to computers in grades K-12. This measure was taken so that computer technology and telecommunications equipment that schools purchase through Minnesota technology grants are readily accessible to students with disabilities.

* Other legislation that state Tech Act projects have promoted or are working on include the following:


-- Bill of rights for managed care clients.
-- Tax exemptions for vehicle modification.
-- Home modification property tax incentive.
-- Assistive technology sales tax exemption.
-- Medicare coverage of assistive technology devices and equipment.
-- Provision of assistive technology for university students.
-- State funding to match federal funds for Tech Act project activities.

Changes Through Practice


Tech Act projects have encouraged changes in practices within their states. These changes have increased the funding available for assistive technology and have expanded services to include assistive technology.

* Medicaid Program

State Tech Act projects have worked to improve access to assistive technology through state Medicaid programs. They have expanded the capacity of state agencies to effectively tap Medicaid dollars to fund assistive technology.

The Maine Tech Act Project (CITE) provided technical assistance to school districts so that they could become Medicaid providers. These efforts have reduced funding barriers and allowed more children to acquire assistive technology.

* Local School Technology Plans


As local school districts become connected to the information superhighway, state Tech Act projects have worked to insert assistive technology into local school technology plans. This change helps schools plan for the current and future assistive technology needs of their students with disabilities, and it reduces costs associated with retrofitting infrastructure systems.

The Tennessee Tech Act Project collaborated with the state agency personnel of the 21st Century Classroom to revise selection guidelines for computer hardware and software. These revisions will ensure that the educational technology in the classroom will be accessible to students with disabilities. It also will ensure access to technology for the 113,000 students with disabilities in the state.

The Missouri Tech Act Project (MATP), in collaboration with its Department of Education and Special Education Technology Center, developed and distributed a list of access considerations to help the state's more than 500 school districts make cost-effective technology purchases that will ensure full access for students with disabilities. These access considerations were also distributed nationally.

* School District Guidelines


State Tech Act projects worked with parents and with state and school district representatives to develop guidelines that help clarify and modify many local school district procedures for providing assistive technology. These guidelines help more students and their families obtain and benefit from assistive technology needed for learning.

The Virginia Tech Act Project (VATS) has collaborated in a project to increase the capacity of six school districts to conduct assistive technology evaluations. VATS hopes that the model used will be replicated throughout the state.

* Services for Infants and Toddlers



State Tech Act projects have worked to include assistive technology in the early intervention services available to families and children. As a result, young children with disabilities, aged birth to 3 years old, will be able to develop, grow, and learn with the aid of assistive technology.

In collaboration with its state's infant and toddler program, the Indiana Tech Act Project (ATTAIN) developed an assistive technology assessment process that has been recommended for statewide use. As a result, young children will receive assistive technology evaluations.
The West Virginia Tech Act Project (WVATS) forged an interagency partnership with several early intervention programs to increase access by young children to assistive technology services. The project hosted a summer camp for professionals and for parents and their young children with disabilities. The camp provided participants with information, training, and the opportunity to thoroughly test and evaluate devices.

* Routine Consideration for Rehabilitation Services

Tech Act projects have collaborated with state agencies for vocational rehabilitation services to develop standard practices so that assistive technology is routinely considered when planning an adult's Individualized Written Rehabilitation Program. This involvement by the Tech Act projects has increased the number of adults who obtain and use assistive technology to reach their work and educational goals.

At the request of the state rehabilitation agency, the District of Columbia Tech Act Project (DCPAT) developed an assistive technology checklist for rehabilitation counselors to use. This checklist is now part of their policy manual and is routinely used by counselors when planning a rehabilitation program.

The Colorado Tech Act Project worked with its Division of Vocational Rehabilitation to revise its service delivery procedures. Vocational rehabilitation counselors were trained on the uses of assistive technology. The policies and procedures book was revised so that consumers are now getting access to assistive technology earlier and with fewer purchasing obstacles.

The Alabama Tech Act Project (STAR) established a recycling program within the Department of Rehabilitation Services to access previously acquired and abandoned devices. The assistive technology is issued to aid individuals with disabilities in employment, independent living, and involvement in the community.

Creating/Modifying Organizational Structures


Tech Act projects have been able to influence the establishment of permanent organizational structures that increase the access to, availability of, and funding for assistive technology. These structures include the following:

* Governmental Structures


State Tech Act projects have encouraged the permanent creation of task forces, state advisory councils on assistive technology, and offices of rehabilitation technology. These entities focus state efforts on improving access to assistive technology for their citizens as well as greater user representation on these citizen boards.

The Alaska Tech Act Project was successful in securing an assistive technology seat on the State Vocational Rehabilitation Advisory Council.

The consumer-controlled Assistive Technology Council that advises the Missouri Tech Act Project (MATP) was established by state statute. As a free-standing, state-legislated entity, it has increased the level of consumer involvement in decision making regarding MATP activities.

The Massachusetts Tech Act Project (MATP) aquired a seat on the National Telecommunications Access Advisory Board, which developed guidelines for accessible telecommunications equipment under the Telecommunications Act of 1996.

* Nonprofit Organizations


State Tech Act projects have formed nonprofit organizations designed to increase access to assistive technology. In 1996, 20 projects had leveraged their federal funds through fee-for-service arrangements, other grants, and contracts to support additional activities that will expand assistive technology services.

The Nebraska Tech Act Project worked with the Department of Education to establish an assistive technology center for training and technical assistance for all of the state's public schools.

The Utah Tech Act Project established a state center for assistive technology that provides demonstrations, assessments, customizations, fabrications, and training on assistive technology. The center is now fully funded by the state.

The North Carolina Tech Act Project leveraged funding from a private foundation to establish a $2 million fund for innovative assistive technology programs to serve rural areas in the state.

The Georgia Tech Act Project (Tools for Life) now conducts its annual Touch the Future conference through a nonprofit organization. This conference has increased the awareness of thousands of citizens in the state on the uses and benefits of assistive technology devices and services.

* Building Capacity


State Tech Act projects have built expertise and additional services into existing entities in the state so that these entities now have the capacity to supply or support assistive technology services.

The District of Columbia Tech Act Project (DCPAT) provides creative initiative awards to local community groups to increase the awareness and knowledge level of assistive technology.

The Minnesota Tech Act Project (STAR) sponsors community organization minigrants that provide seed money or that match public and private resources to expand the availability of assistive technology.

The Illinois Tech Act Project infuses assistive technology into existing training and curricula of community and state agencies, so that the personnel in those agencies now can address assistive technology needs.

Collaborative Efforts

Collaboration with other agencies and entities is a priority for Tech Act projects. Through collaborative efforts with protection and advocacy agencies and other state and community agencies and groups, state tech act projects have worked to minimize barriers that prevent a person from acquiring AT.

* Interagency Councils


State Tech Act projects have established state interagency committees on technology to reduce duplication of state efforts and to coordinate the provision of assistive technology devices and services by state agencies to consumers and employees.

The California Tech Act Project (CATS) established a state interagency committee on technology to reduce duplication of state efforts and to coordinate the provision of assistive technology devices and services by state agencies to consumers and employees.
The North Dakota Tech Act Project (IPAT) coordinated the development of a statewide assistive technology action committee comprised of representatives from public and private agencies and persons with disabilities to identify and collaborate in reducing assistive technology barriers.

* Interagency Agreements

State Tech Act projects have facilitated the development of interagency assistive technology agreements with the various state agencies that provide assistive technology devices and services. Through these agreements, purchasing has been streamlined, agency jurisdictions have been clarified, and resources are being pooled to provide assistive technology.

The South Dakota Tech Act Project (DakotaLink) created interagency assistive technology purchasing agreements involving education, vocational rehabilitation services, services to the blind, social services, labor and the Veterans Administration, reducing the cost to each agency and providing a smoother transition for the client.

The Wyoming Tech Act Project (WYNOT) brokered an agreement between the Division of Vocational Rehabilitation and the Department of Education that will reduce the cost to students of purchasing assistive technology and that will allow them to continue to use the equipment as they transition from school to the work force.

* Public and Private Partnership


State Tech Act projects have facilitated the expansion of the availability of assistive technology among private entities. These partnerships have increased funding sources and have reached a wider audience of potential assistive technology users.

To provide outreach to underserved populations, the Mississippi Tech Act Project (START) collaborates with a university and a comprehensive center on technology and disability. Together they provide assistive technology evaluations and other services.
The Puerto Rico Tech Act Project has established agreements with other agencies such as the Vocational Rehabilitation Administration, Department of Health, and Department of Education to increase accessibility to assistive technology devices and services to consumers from early childhood through adulthood.

The South Carolina Tech Act Project joined with other disability groups to establish an assistive technology resource center that serves as the hub for the state assistive technology efforts. The center provides adaptive equipment for demonstration and loans. Therapists working with their clients are able to try out devices to see what works.
The Hawaii Tech Act Project (HATTS) has formed a consortium with a center for independent living, a vocational rehabilitation work program and a disability organization that has created a convenient single-entry-point center to address the multiple needs of the state's citizens with disabilities.

The American Samoa Tech Act Project has encouraged more assistive technology vendors and suppliers to establish offices on the islands, so that its citizens have greater access to devices and services.

For more information about these and other activities, contact the RESNA Technical Assistance Project or the individual Tech Act project.



Tech Act Projects Activities to Achieve Change


Alabama:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program: yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Alaska:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

American Samoa:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Arizona:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:no
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:no
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Arkansas:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

California:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Colorado:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Connecticut:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Delaware:

Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes


District of Columbia:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes


Florida:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes


Georgia:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:no
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes


Guam:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Hawaii:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Idaho:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:no
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes


Illinois:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes


Indiana:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:pending
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Iowa:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Kansas:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Kentucky:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Louisiana:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Maine:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Maryland:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Massachusetts:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Michigan:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:no
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Minnesota:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Mississippi:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Missouri:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Montana:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Nebraska:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Nevada:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

New Hampshire:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

New Jersey:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

New Mexico:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

New York:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:no
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

North Carolina:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

North Dakota:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Northern Marianas:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Ohio:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Oklahoma:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Oregon:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:no
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Pennsylvania:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Puerto Rico:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:pending
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Rhode Island:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

South Carolina:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:pending
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

South Dakota:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Tennessee:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Texas:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Utah:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Vermont:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:yes
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Virgin Islands:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:no
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Virginia:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:no
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Washington:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

West Virginia:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:yes
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Wisconsin:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:no
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:yes
Other Laws:yes
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes

Wyoming:
Streamline Purchasing Processes:yes
Special Education Policy:yes
Vocational Rehabilitation Policy:yes
Medical Assistance Policy:yes
Private Insurance Policy:no
Lemon Law:no
Other Laws:no
Financial Loan Program:no
Collaborate with Special Education: yes
Collaborate with Vocational Rehab: yes
Other Collaborations:yes


April 1998
Produced by the RESNA Technical Assistance Project 1700 North Moore Street, Suite 1540 Arlington, VA 22209-1903 (703) 524-6686 (voice) (703) 524-6639 (TDD) (703) 524-6630 (Fax).

This publication is available upon request in alternative formats. The information contained herein does not necessarily reflect the position of NIDRR/ED or the Rehabilitation Engineering and Assistive Technology Society of North America (RESNA), and no official endorsement of the materials should be inferred.

RESNA is an interdisciplinary association of people with a common interest in technology and disability. RESNA was the grantee funded under the Tech Act to provide technical assistance and information to the Tech Act projects from 1989-1999. Beginning on October 1, 1999, RESNA became the grantee funded under the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 to provide technical assistance and information to the AT Act grantees.
For more information about these and other activities, contact the RESNA Technical Assistance Project or the individual Tech Act project.

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The National Assistive Technology Technical Assistance Partnership is a cooperative agreement between the U.S. Department of Education and RESNA. The grant (Grant #H224B050003; CFDA 84.224B) is funded under the Assistive Technology Act of 1998, as amended and administered by the Rehabilitation Services Administration, Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services at the U.S. Department of Education.

This website is developed with grant funds. The information contained on these pages does not necessarily reflect the policy or position of the U.S. Department of Education or the Grantee and no official endorsement of the information should be inferred.